This Force and Motion MatchCard compares speed, velocity, momentum, and acceleration.

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Provides the definition, formula, examples and demonstration activities for speed, velocity, momentum, and acceleration.

Projects: Toy car for demonstrations. Describe an amusement park ride you would invent using these terms.

This is **MatchCard #6** of the Force and Motion Unit Study. You can find more information on MatchCard Science below.

Check Amazon and Walmart for best prices on Blu Track. They are not easy to find locally. You do not need to order the larger sets with ramps unless you desire to, as you can create your own ramps with a heavy object like books or laundry detergent.

Use a toy car to visualize the concept of speed. If you went 25 miles in one hour, what is your speed? What if you went 150 miles in 2 hours?

When we travel, we often use miles per hour, though much of the world uses kilometers per hour.

In physics, speed is often measured in meters per second.

Rate = Distance/Time

OR

R = d/t

OR

R = d/t

- 50 mph
- 1,000,000,000 miles per second
- 10 meters per second
- Knots

1 nautical mile = 1.15 miles

Unless you are planning on becoming a sailor or navigator, you don’t need to memorize this converstion.
Of course, you know that you can find your speed by measuring distance divided by time.

Without evening knowing you I can tell you what your velocity was.

It was 0.

Imagine you were traveling to another city at 50 miles per hour. You traveled for one hour. Then you realized you forgot something. The car is turned around, and you go 50 mph for 30 minutes. Your speed was 50 mph. However, you only traveled 25 miles in one and a half hours. That is a velocity of 16 mph. Not much progress for someone going 50 mph, is it?

Examples:

- North at 45 mph
- Southeast at 350 mph

Momentum is the scientific concept that multiples mass with speed. This next activity will demonstrate that.

Mass X Velocity

You learned about mass in MatchCard #2. Remember that ounces and pounds are used for weight, and grams and kilograms are used for mass.
- Mass of vehicle or marble
- Length of straight track (no loops or bends)
- Second timer
- Small scale to measure the mass of your vehicle or object. A postal scale can be used and convert from ounces to grams (Remember one ounce is 28 grams.)

Popular ideas and trends often are said to “gain momentum” even if there is no scientific object. Can you discuss examples?

I think it’s a pretty good idea to get out of the road!

- It starts at 0.
- It is at 10 cm at the end of 1 second.
- It is at 20 cm at the end of 2 seconds.
- It is at 30 cm at the end of 3 seconds.
- It is at 40 cm at the end of 4 seconds.

- Change in speed: 0.4 meters per second
- Amount of time: 4 seconds
- Acceleration: 0.1 meters per second per second

It is standard when graphing time to record it on the x axis.

1 mile per hour = 0.45 meters per second

- Let’s say you are riding in a car at 25 miles per hour. The road merges into a larger highway with a 45 mile per hour speed limit. Your car accelerates from 25 miles per hour to 45 miles per hour over 5 seconds.
- Change in speed: 20 mph or 0.9 mps
- Amount of time: 5 seconds
- Acceleration: 0.18 m/s2

Experiment with what happens as you make the incline steeper. Keep in mind that an inclined plane is one of our six simple machines. Of course, the wheel and axel are also used if you are using the cars.

Why does the steeper incline make the vehichle or marble accelerate? Answer: Gravity

- Hints: One kilometer is 1000 meters
- One kilogram is 1000 grams
- Momentum is mass x velocity

In fact, scientists generally refer to acceleration as positive (going faster) and negative (deceleration.)

So car enthusiasts have a different method of discussing acceleration than scientists do. They measure how fast a car can go from stationary to sixty miles per hour. The average car can do it about 8 seconds - though it is not recommended. Its rough on the cars’ engine, which is why the race car drivers have a team of mechanics to work on their cars. Something your parents don’t want to pay for first time you drive down the driveway.

- Scientists identify acceleration: meters per second squared
- Consumers identify acceleration: 0 to 60
- Race car drivers accelerate: 0 to 60
- Regular drivers: don’t go 0 to 60 unless they have money for a new vehicle.

- Meters per second per second
- Meters per second squared
- m/s
^{2} - m/s/s

MatchCards make science concepts and corresponding vocabulary interactive. As students move the information pieces on the MatchCards they review the material they have already learned.

Download the FREE MatchCard Science Instructor's Guide and see how MatchCards can make building their science knowledge base fun.

From six simple machines to Newton's Laws, our Force & Motion Unit Study from MatchCard Science helps kids get their hands into science and simple physics..

It will take four to six weeks to complete the seven objectives in this Unit Study.

Download the entire Force And Motion Unit Study.

Chemistry is only one of twelve complete unit studies for kids in 3rd to 8th grade.

Comprehensive objectives, hands-on projects, suggested science fair experiments, and the fun game-like MatchCards keep them interested in learning science. See all twelve MatchCard Science Unit Studies.

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